Glossary of Terms

These explanations and definitions of terms are used internally as a guide in carrying out day to day business in the mining lands section.

Note: Words within quotation marks ("") have been taken from Black's Law Dictionary. Words will be added to this glossary on an ongoing basis.



"to voluntarily relinquish or give with intent of never again resuming one's right or interest." When an unpatented mining claim is voluntarily relinquished it is abandoned.

Also, projects can be abandoned under Part VII of the Act. The projects can be on unpatented claims, leases, licences of occupation or patents. When leases, licences of occupation and patents are voluntarily relinquished they are referred to as being surrendered.

Under part VII of the Mining Act R.S.O. 1990 abandoned means the proponent has ceased or suspended indefinitely advanced exploration, mining, or mine production on the site without rehabilitating the site.

Abstract of Title
under the Registry Act a listing in order by date of all documents and events which give the person title to the land. It also shows encumbrances [claim, lien, liability] against the property.
laws passed by the Provincial or Federal Government
Address for Service
when a person/company is a claim holder or has a right or interest in a mining claim that person/client must give MNDM the name, home address and mailing address of a person who lives in Ontario and represents them.
any person 18 years of age or older.
Advertised List
referred to in the Act as the defaulters list. This is the list of freehold patents which may forfeit back to the Crown if the client does not pay the overdue taxes owing to the Ministry. This list is printed in the Ontario Gazette no later than July 15th of each year. Also by that date, the list (bilingual) must be advertised in one issue of the newspaper with the largest distribution in the district or county where the property is.
Age of Majority
the age (18) at which a minor becomes an adult.
a written/printed statement of facts in the name of a person who swears or affirms it before a person having authority to administer the oath.
Affidavit of Subscribing Witness
is a statement sworn or affirmed before a Commissioner of Oaths (e.g. Justice of the Peace) or a Notary Public (in the United States). In that statement the person is swearing that he or she witnessed one of the people sign the attached document, form or letter.
"to make a solemn (formal) declaration [without a Bible] that an affidavit is true, that the witness will tell the truth, etc." This differs from swearing an oath which refers to a solemn appeal to the Supreme Being (God) and uses a Bible in the process of swearing the oath.
a transferring of title to or interest in a property to another.
Aliquot Part
division of the whole into equal parts with no remainder. "Strictly speaking it means contained in something else an exact number of times." A part of a surveyed township can be described as portions of that township, e.g. the north half of the east half of Lot 3, Concession VII, Township of....
Anniversary Date
See Mining Act R.S.O. 1990 section 1.
when referring to assessment work credits, credits are applied to the mining claim where the assessment work was performed.
"to fix the value of."
Assessment Work

Under the Mining Act, a mining claim holder is required to perform and submit annual prospecting and/or exploration work to the Minister to maintain interest in the staked claim. For example - trenching, blasting, diamond drilling, geological survey, geophysical survey, etc.

Not all types of exploration work or associated costs are eligible for assessment work credits. See the Assessment Work Regulation.

Assessment Year
See s.1 of Assessment Work Regulation.
when referring to assessment work credits, credits are assigned to contiguous unpatented mining claims where the work was not performed.
when a recorded holder applies for several separate leases, at the same time, for contiguous mining claims held by that client, the total area of that group of claims can be averaged. This can minimize the amount of work or money due for oversized claims.


assessment work credits ($) filed, relative to the claim where the work was performed, and not yet applied to the work requirement for an eligible mining claim
Beneficial Interest
Profit, benefit or advantage resulting from a contract, or the ownership of an estate as distinct from the legal ownership or control."
a person who receives a benefit under a will, or from a policy of insurance.
the practice of marking the boundaries of a mining claim by removing the bark from a portion of a tree.
Block Claim
is one unpatented mining claim made up of more than one 16 hectare claim unit. The block claim must meet the size and shape of a mining claim set in the staking regulations.
something that limits; a limiting line e.g. along the westerly limit.


a notification on the title register forbidding the transfer of the property without the consent of the cautioner. A caution is not be confused with a lien which is a monetary security against the property. (e.g. Temagami land caution)
Certificate of Forfeiture
a declaration by the minister that a patent has forfeited and vested in the Crown. A notice is registered in the appropriate Land Registry office stating that all or part of a freehold patent has been forfeited to and vested in the Crown in Right of Ontario.
Certified Copy
a copy signed and certified as true by the official to whose custody the original is entrusted.
Chain of Title
an unbroken history of entitlement to or possession of lands traced back to an original grant from the crown. Chain of title is said to beclouded where a clear history is not traceable.
a form of security for the payment of a debt or performance of an obligation. A charge creates only a lien on the land charged and the legal title does not vest in the person/company who loaned out the money. A charge is registered under the Land Titles Act while a mortgage is registered under the Land Registry Act.
person/company who lends the money out.
person/company who borrows the money.
any tangible property other than freehold land. "A thing which is personal and movable, whether animate or inanimate [without life or spirit]."
Claim Holder
the person(s) or company(s) in whose name the unpatented mining claim is recorded (same as recorded holder). The person/company who is responsible for meeting the requirements of the mining act to keep the mining claim in good standing.
Computerized Mining Lands Information Management System. The computer program designed for the Ministry of Northern Development and Mines to store all information recorded in the office of the mining recorders on each active unpatented mining claim. For computerized information on leases, licences and patents see the definitions for LIS and OLRS.
Claim Unit
a mining claim is made up of one or more square 16 ha. units.
Client Number
a unique number assigned to each client (a person or company) by the Provincial Recording Office. This number is the key identifier for the CLAIMS system.
a person to whom a commission is granted by the government or a court. The commission is usually granted for a set time, a set subject matter, and/or a set geographical area, or the management of some bureau or agency of the government. All lawyers have an unrestricted commission. The Mining and Lands Commissioner is an example. Also see Mining Act R.S.O. 1990 section 1.
Commissioner of Oaths
a person who is granted a commission to take oaths/affidavits.
a tier of township lots.
"in close proximity; neighboring; adjoining; near in succession; in actual close contact; touching at a point or along a boundary; bounded or traversed by."
Conversion Date
On June 3, 1991 assessment work credits on record were converted from work days to dollars.
Conversion Rate
Subsection 21(1) of the Assessment Work Regulation 116/91 set the rate of converting man days (old act) to dollars at $22 for each day filed less $400 for each assessment year passed since the claim was recorded.
"generally, every instrument in writing by which an estate or interest in the realty is created. Term may also include assignment, lease, mortgage or encumbrance of land."
means a body corporate with share capital to which the Business Corporations Act applies.
for provincial purposes, the Queen in right of Ontario; for federal purposes, the Queen in right of Canada.
Crown Alienation
is the transferring of property by the Crown to a person or company.
Crown Grant
lands of the Crown granted to private individuals or companies by letters patent.
Crown Land
See Mining Act R.S.O. 1990 section 1.
Crown Land Disposition
the transferring of land by the Crown to a person or company.
Crown Land Reference Plan of Survey
is a plan prepared under the instructions of the Surveyor General for Ontario.


to solemnly assert a fact before witnesses. To make known, manifest, or clear. (Source: Black's Law Dictionary)
Deputy Minister
See Mining Act R.S.O. 1990 section 1.
Discharge of Mortgage
a release by the mortgagee of all his/her rights under the mortgage. Removing the notation on the abstract of title in the land registry thus acknowledging that the mortgage has been paid.
transferring to the care or possession of another.(Source: Black's Law Dictionary)
when referring to assessment work credits, it is the decision and instructions to apply, bank, assign credits.
Document General
a form used by the land registrars for all registrations except transfers, charges (mortgages) and discharges.


a right of use over the property of another. (Source: Black's Law Dictionary)
a claim, lien, charge or liability attached to and binding real property e.g. mortgage, construction lien, easement. (Source: Black's Law Dictionary)
Exploratory Licence of Occupation.
reversion of land (Source: Black's Law Dictionary) to the Crown when the owner dies intestate and without lawful heirs, or the land has forfeited to the crown for any cause.
includes a writ of seizure and sale and every subsequent writ for giving effect thereto. [from Executions Act].
termination from mere lapse of time, as the expiration date of a lease. (Source: Black's Law Dictionary) The expiry of a lease is not a voluntary surrender, it is the end of the agreement between the lessor and lessee.
Exploratory Licence of Occupation
a licence which allows exploration, of tracts of land and or land under water, under specific terms set by the Minister. An ELO is issued at the discretion of the Minister usually for areas with lack of rock on the surface, where there are no roads, for lands sensitive to the environment, for areas of abandoned mine hazards, etc. The licensee does not normally have the right to mine.
Extension Date
The date that assessment work and the resulting report are due as a result of an extension of time.


Fee Simple
an estate of absolute inheritance without limitation or condition. The person owns the land, whereas a lessee must meet certain requirements as set out, by the Crown, in the lease.
the practice of marking the boundary of a mining claim by tying plastic flagging around trees.
"to lose an estate, a franchise, or other property belonging to one, by the act of law, and as a consequence of some misfeasance, negligence, default, or omission." Under the Mining Act, a forfeiture can occur for several reasons such as: if a mining claim holder does meet annual assessment work requirements or does not meet conditions of a Recorder's order; if a lessee or licensee does not pay annual rents; or if a patentee does not pay the annual mining lands tax. Also, a lease can be forfeited, by the Lieutenant Governor under Part VII of the Act, when the Director of Mine Rehabilitation declares the project on the lease abandoned.
Forfeiture Notice
a notice sent to an owner of a patent that they are two or more years overdue in payment of their mining lands taxes. The client is warned that their mining land may forfeit to the Crown if they don't pay.


General Partner
personally, fully responsible for the liabilities of a partnership.
Grid Lines
a network of survey or map reference lines cut or flagged.


When referring to the holder of an unpatented mining claim or a licence of occupation issued under this Act, means the holder of record.


In Place
See Mining Act R.S.O. 1990 section 1.
a formal legal writing such as a deed, will, bond, or lease. (Source: Black's Law Dictionary) Other examples are option agreements and transfers.
a right to have the advantage accruing from anything; any right in the nature of the property but less than title. (Source: Black's Law Dictionary)
without a will.


Joint Tenancy
ownership of land in common by more than one person where a right of survivorship exists. If one person dies the other joint tenant(s) automatically inherits the land.



means a leasehold patent of mining rights or of surface rights, or of both mining rights and surface rights. A conveyance or grant of possession of land for a set length of time. There is usually a requirement to pay rent. Application for the Minister's consent for transfer and renew mining leases is needed; and also for getting a mortgage on a lease.
land held under a lease.
One who rents property from another. (Source: Black's Law Dictionary)
One who rents property to another. (Source: Black's Law Dictionary)
Letters of Administration
when a person dies intestate, the Ontario Court (General Division) will grant to the proper person (administrator) authority to deal with the property of the deceased.
Letter of Deficiency
a notice to claim holder that the work report is insufficient for one or more inadequacies as described by the Assessment Work Regulation [R.S.O. 1990].
Letter of Reduction (Cutback)
a letter informing a client that the amount of exploration expenditures being approved is less than the amount they filed on the Report of Work. The letter also outlines the amount of credit that will be given for the work.
Letters Patent
a document made under the Great Seal of the province or of Canada by which Crown lands are granted to private individuals/companies.
Letters Probate
court approval as to the validity of the will of a deceased of a person.
an authority to do something which would otherwise be illegal. A particular privilege to do some particular act or series of acts on land without possessing any estate or interest therein, and ordinarily is revocable at the will of the licenser. (Source: Black's Law Dictionary); e.g. a mining claim is a licence, at will [of the Crown], to perform work. Subsection 50(1) of the Mining Act discusses the rights in a mining claim.
Licence of Occupation
a licence given by the Crown to occupy a specific area of land. See Exploratory Licence of Occupation and Mining Licence of Occupation.
person/company to whom the licence is given. Also see Mining Act R.S.O. 1990 section 1.
a secured interest in property. "A claim, encumbrance, or charge on property for payment of some debt, obligation, or duty."
Limited Partnership
"type of partnership comprised of one or more general partners who manage business and who are personally liable for partnership debts, and one or more limited partners who contribute capital and share in profits but who take no part in running business and incur no liability with respect to partnership obligations beyond contribution."
where several mining lands, either unpatented claims, leases, licences of occupation, patents, or combinations of these, have no break in physical contact from one another. For the purposes of assigning assessment work credits, there must also be a constant (in time) connection in right or interest to the mining lands through a common recorded holder, lessee, licensee, owner or beneficial interest holder.
Land Information System. The computer program designed for the Ministry of Natural Resources to store all information about Crown lands granted to the private sector. LIS includes information on leases, licences of occupation, and patents. For patents, LIS only stores information about the original grant of land. Subsequent severances and sales of patents are not reported to MNR. They are reported to the Ministry of Consumer and Commercial Relations (MCCR).


See Mining Act R.S.O. 1990 section 1.
Map Staking
Means the delineation of the area of a mining claim on a map reference system using a method set out in the regulations
Metal Tag
See Mining Act R.S.O. 1990 section 1.
a measurement e.g. a distance of 50 feet to a point The term is used in the legal description of land.
Metes and Bounds Description
a description that includes measurements and a limiting line e.g. Thence northerly along the westerly limit of the Lot a distance of 100 feet to a point.
See Mining Act R.S.O. 1990 section 1.
Means all naturally occurring metallic and non-metallic minerals, including coal, salt, quarry and pit material, gold, silver and all rare and precious minerals and metals, but does not include sand, gravel, peat, gas or oil.
Mining Claim
See Mining Act R.S.O. 1990 section 1.
Mining Lands
See Mining Act R.S.O. 1990 section 1.
Mining Licence of Occupation (MLO)

a licence to occupy essentially land under water. A MLO was issued for areas not designated as provincial forests. They were issued prior to the amendment of the Mining Act in 1964 and are no longer issued under section 41 of the Mining Act R.S.O. 1990. They were issued in perpetuity, i.e. there is no requirement to renew a MLO. These were generally associated with patents over land.

The licensee has the right to mine.

Exception - An exception, to no new issuance and the purpose of a mining licence of occupation, is the MLO which is issued as first claim on surface rights for tailings purposes. An MLO issued under subsection 176(3) is rare.

Mining Location
was the Crown sale of land for mining purposes. The land was surveyed before the township was subdivided. They also exist in unsurveyed territory.
Mining Rights
means the right to minerals on, in or under any land.
see Mining Act R.S.O. 1990 section 1.
Mining Licence of Occupation
a cadastral survey term usually referring to an object which defines a point on a boundary (e.g. a bearing tree, iron bar, etc.)
"is an interest in land created by a written instrument providing security [to the mortgagee] for the performance of a duty or the payment of a debt." Title vests in person/company who loaned out the money.
the person/company who supplies the money and holds title to the property as security.
the person who is borrowing the money.
means a city, town, village, township or improvement district.


Non Beneficial Interest
by definition liens (including writs of execution), mortgages, charges, and debentures do not qualify as beneficial interest as there is no profit, benefit, or advantage from them. They are claims or charges on property for payment of some debt or duty.
Northern Ontario
means that part of the province lying north of the south shore of the French River, Lake Nipissing and Mattawa River
Notary Public
a person, generally a lawyer, who compares an original with a copy of a document and declares that the copy is an exact duplicate of the original.
Notice of Deficiency
a letter informing a client about what information they failed to include in their report of work. The notice sets a time limit for the client to provide the information.
Notice of Determination
see Notice of Termination.
Notice of Termination
a notice which is registered in the appropriate Land Registry office that a lease has been terminated for surrender, non renewal or forfeiture. It is also used for the surrender of patents. This is also referred to as a Notice of Determination. A Certificate of Forfeiture is used for forfeiture of patents.


The definition of oath refers to conscience, based on religious belief, specifically Christian or Bible-based religious belief. People may affirm when they cannot on conscientious or religious grounds swear an oath using the Bible.
Ontario Land Registration System. A computer program designed for the Ministry of Consumer and Commercial Relations which is being implemented in stages across the province. It is the record (maps and documents) of all transactions (which are registered with MCCR) affecting title of land in Ontario. OLRS does not include unpatented mining claims which, under subsection 50(1) of the Mining Act, are not consider interest in land, legally.
Ontario Land Surveyor
a person licensed by the Association of Ontario Land Surveyors to practice land surveying in Ontario.

In respect of a diamond mine, includes,

  1. a person who has the right to work a diamond mine and produce diamonds from it personally or through agents or employees or together with one or more other persons, and
  2. a person who has the right to receive a share of the proceeds, the profits or the net value of the output of a diamond mine or who has an interest in a diamond mine, whether as a member of a joint venture, as a member of a partnership, or as a beneficiary of a trust that has the right to work the diamond mine and produce diamonds from it, but does not include any person whose only right or interest is the right to receive royalties
an order made by the Queen "by and with the advice of the Executive Council". These are signed by the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario, on the recommendation of the Minister of Cabinet or the Mining and Lands Commissioner.
all loosely arranged material that lies above bedrock. It may include soil, sand and gravel deposits, peat and weathered rock.
See Mining Act R.S.O. 1990 section 1.


a small piece of land; in a deed it is a description of lands with reference to their boundaries and total extent.
Parcel Register
a history of who is registered under the Land Titles Act as owner of the parcel of land plus notes any encumbrances and liens against the property.
a business owned by two or more persons that is not organized as a corporation. A voluntary contract between two or more competent persons to place their money, effects, labour, and skill, or some or all of them, in lawful commerce or business, with the understanding that there shall be a proportional sharing of the profits and losses between them. (Source: Black's Law Dictionary)
means a grant from the Crown in fee simple, also referred to as freehold patents. The patent cannot be terminated by the Ministry of Northern Development and Mines, except for voluntary surrender or non payment of mining lands taxes. Also see Mining Act R.S.O. 1990 section 1. Also see Lease. A leasehold patent and a fee simple patent are not the same.
begun, but not yet completed; in process of settlement. (Source: Black's Law Dictionary)
Pending Proceeding
An action which is before the courts, a judicial officer, agency, tribunal, or bureau, but the action has not been finished. This includes an action before the Mining Recorder. Refer to s. 30(f) of the Mining Act.
to execute [complete], fulfill, or accomplish according to the terms (Source: Black's Law Dictionary) of the obligation or contract.
Perimeter Survey
a survey (by an Ontario Land Surveyor) around the outside boundary of a group of claims. The survey is done to apply for one lease. The entire group of claims within one perimeter survey must be leased as one lease.
The state of being continued forever.
Personal Information
means recorded information about an identifiable individual (Source: Black's Law Dictionary) and includes, among other things: information relating to financial transactions in which the individual has been involved; the address, telephone number of the individual; correspondence sent to an institution by the individual that is implicitly or explicitly of a private or confidential nature and replies to that correspondence that would reveal the contents of the original correspondence. For a full definition of personal information refer to subsection 2 (1) of FOIPPA.
the making of maps from air photographs.
Plan of Survey
is a plan prepared and signed by a licensed Ontario Land Surveyor showing surveyed boundaries of land (e.g. mining claim survey, perimeter survey). See also Reference Plan and Registered Plan.
Power of Attorney
authority of another person to execute (sign) documents or carry out transactions. Authority to do any act which the grantor might himself lawfully perform. (Source: Black's Law Dictionary)
Power of Sale
is a term within the mortgage giving power to the mortgagee (lender) on behalf of another to sell the mortgaged property.
by the regulations. To change anything prescribed (Source: Black's Law Dictionary) (e.g. forms, fees, rules, processes, etc.) you must change the regulation by an order-in-council.
the process of determining the validity of a will.
means the investigating of, or searching for, minerals as defined by s.1 of the Mining Act.
Provincial Land Tax

all land in Ontario located in territory without municipal organization is liable to assessment and taxation (with exceptions set out in s.3 Provincial Land Tax Act, R.S.O. 1990). This is not a tax on mining rights.

The Ministry of Revenue collects the land taxes unless the property is within an organized municipality; those land taxes are paid to the municipality.


Quit Claim
A deed or other legal document by which an owner gives up a claim to some property or right when there is no record of a right having been given.


Recorded Holder
the person(s) or company(s) in whose name the unpatented mining claim is recorded. The person/company who is responsible for meeting the requirements of the Mining Act to keep the mining claim in good standing.
Record of Information
means any record of information however recorded, in print, on film, by electronic means or otherwise, and includes, correspondence, a memorandum, a book, a plan, a map, a drawing, a diagram, a film, a microfilm, a sound recording, a videotape, a machine readable record, any other documentary material, regardless of physical form or characteristics, and any copy thereof. (from Subsection 2(1) of Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act).
Recording Licensee
the licensee who records the claim. The person who has been designated to record a claim in the name of another person/company.
Reference Plan
is a plan of survey deposited (not registered) and has no effect on description of land until there is a transaction (e.g. a lease) in accordance with the plan. See Plan of Survey.
Registered Plan of Subdivision
is a plan of survey which divides land into various numbered or named subdivision units such as lots, blocks, streets, etc. Plans of subdivision upon registration create a new geographic identity for the land. See Plan of Survey.
law making outside of Parliament. It is a regulation, rule, order or by-law [not municipal by-law] of a legislative nature made or approved under an Act of the Legislature by the Lieutenant Governor in Council, a minister of the Crown, an official of the government or board or commission all the members of which are appointed by the Lieutenant Governor in Council. Also see Mining Act R.S.O. 1990 section 1.
Reopening Order
a Minister's order to reopen for prospecting, staking, sale or lease any lands, mining rights and/or surface rights that have been previously withdrawn under the Mining Act.
Replacement Lease
under subsection 83 of the Mining Act R.S.O. 1990, one mining lease can be replaced by two or more mining leases but they must contain the same types of rights. A mining and surface rights lease must be replaced by two or more mining and surface rights leases. It cannot be replaced by one mining rights lease and one surface rights lease.
a right in property is an "interest or title; a just and legal claim to hold, use, or enjoy it, or to convey it."
Right of Way
the right of passing over land of another (Source: Black's Law Dictionary) [including the Crown].
Belonging or relating to the bank of a river or stream; of or on the bank. Land lying beyond the natural watershed of stream is not riparian. The term is sometimes used as relating to the shore of the sea or other tidal water, or of a lake or other considerable body of water not having the character of a watercourse. But this is not accurate. The proper word to be employed in such connections is littoral. (Source: Black's Law Dictionary)
Riparian Owner
One who owns land on bank of a river, or one who is owner of land along, bordering upon, bounded by, fronting upon, abutting or adjacent and contiguous to and in contact with river. (Source: Black's Law Dictionary)


Secured Storage Area
a lockable fireproof vault or cabinet which meets the same specifications as a storage area for original documents.
a division of the area contained within a parcel of land under the Planning Act. In addition to vertical separation, under the Mining Act a severance can also be on the horizontal plane, separating the mining rights estate from the surface rights estate.
Southern Ontario
means that part of the province that is not in Northern Ontario (See Northern Ontario)
the setting out of the boundaries of a mining claim by marking [blazing or flagging] lines and erecting and tagging posts.
the process of dividing an existing parcel of land into smaller parcels.
Subdivided Township
a township where the whole or part has been subdivided by survey into lots and concessions or sections, etc. See Plan of Survey.
lessee conveys the land to a third person for a shorter term than that which the lessee holds the title. (Source: Black's Law Dictionary)
Surface Rights Owners
Means in respect of an area of land, an owner in fee simple of the land, as shown in the appropriate land registry office, who does not own the mining rights for the land.
when a person/company wishes to voluntarily give up title to a lease, licence of occupation or patent.
to declare on oath the truth. (Source: Black's Law Dictionary). The Bible is used for swearing the oath.


Tenants in Common
a form of ownership whereby each tenant holds a percentage interest in property. If one of the owners dies, that person's interest in the property passes to the estate or heirs.
the right, term, or mode of holding or occupying (Source: Black's Law Dictionary) land or an office.
the evidence of a person's right to property.
the person who is receiving the right or interest to property, usually by sale.
the person who is giving up the right or interest to title to the land, usually by sale.
the passing of an interest in land by operation of law on death or insolvency.
one or more persons, whether or not incorporated and however described, upon which a statutory power of decision is conferred or under a statute. The Mining and Lands Commissioner is an example of a tribunal.
a relationship based on confidence whereby property is vested in or held by one person for the benefit of another.


when referring to land or mining rights, means land or mining rights for which a patent, lease, licence of occupation or any other form of Crown grant is not in effect.
Unpatented Mining Claim
Crown land which has been staked and recorded (with the appropriate Mining Recorder). The holder of the claim has the right to search the staked land for minerals, but does not have title to the land. After meeting the requirements of the Mining Act, the claim holder has the right to apply for and receive title to the mining claim in the form of a lease.
Unsubdivided Township
a township that has had only the external boundaries defined by survey and/or description.


Valuable Mineral in Place
See Mining Act R.S.O. 1990 section 1.
to deliver full possession of land or an estate.


Withdrawal Order
a Minister's order to withdraw from prospecting and staking and from sale or lease any lands, mining rights, or surface rights that are the property of the Crown.
Witness Post
a post used to project boundaries of a claim when physical, environmental, or cultural factors make it impracticable to erect corner posts; or in the case of line posts, to witness back to the previously erected corner post.
a written judicial order to perform a specified act or giving authority to have it done. (Source: Black's Law Dictionary)
Writ of Execution
a writ to put in force the judgement or decree of a court. (Source: Black's Law Dictionary)